A Myth or Reality – BIOS-based Hypervisor Threat – Mikhail Utin
The talk is a status report of BIOS-based hypervisor research.
Myths and Reality often interest and interchange… this is how life works.
A myth about a Malicious Hypervisor (Russian Ghost) appeared on Russian Hacker’ website at the end of 2011. It has all myth’s attributes. There were rumors about the post, and the storyteller described it as reality.
We believe that it was real or may still exist, and we possibly know where it was born and eventually escaped from.
This research follows 3 individual cases
Case #1: Malicious BIOS Loaded Hypervisor – MBLH (released 2011)
Published in Russian on a Russian site (in Russian language)
Typical Russian computer science project to develop high performance computer system (not associated with Information Security). Troubleshooting issues from the project revealed that Chinese made motherboards contained additional software modules, embedded in the BIOS, and the standard analysis software didn’t see them.
Although the boards were labelled as “assembled in Canada” a majority of the components where of Chinese origin
Chinese boards had two software systems working simultaneously – there is a malicious hypervisor embedded into the BIOS which utilizes hardware virtualization Intel CPU capability.
By checking execution time of systems commands between boards from “China” and “Canada”
Boards without MBLH showed a significantly lower execution time (60x slower), allowing for detection of the hidden hypervisor
All attempts to bring this issue to light within Russia were dismissed… however the author was able to confirm (with some missing details) that the malicious hypervisor is embedded in the BMC BIOS.
Case #2: “SubVirt: Implementing Malware with Virtual Machines” – University of Michigan and Microsoft Research
2005/2006 research paper – Virtual Machine Based Rootkit (VMBR)
We demonstrated that a VMBR can be implemented on commodity hardware and can be used to implement a wide range of malicious services
Installed as a shim between the BIOS and the Operating system. The VMBR only loses control of the system in the period of time when the system reboots and the BIOS is in control.
This research was performed on systems that did not support hardware virtualization support.
Research timeline for Case #1 (2007-2010) starts straight after the SubVirt research was released (2006)
Case #3: Widespread Distribution of Malicious Hypervisor via IPMI vulnerability (2013)
“illuminating the security issues surrounding lights out server management” – University of Michigan
IPMI malware carries similar threats to BIOS and is likely easier to develop, since many BMCs run a standard operating system… if widely used IPMI devices can be compromised remotely, they can be leveraged to create a large network of bots”
Attack scenarios highlighted in this research map (4 out of 5) to those seen in case #1.
These attacks cannot be defended against without vendor assistance. It’s not easy to detect an infection
With a modern trend to move toward cloud services, this may affect overall information security.
These style of attacks are dangerous and can infiltrate millions of servers worldwide
In theory these infections cannot be identified… but we still have a chance
There’s no protection against this, put your server in a dumpster – special thanks to IPMI
No security standard calls for secure management (IPMI) protection